Key plant products and common mechanisms utilized by plants in water deficit stress responses
AbstractPlants are always exposed to fluctuation of environmental factors. Water stress is one of the main abiotic factors limiting plant growth and development on most areas of the world. Declining available water triggers various adaptive processes to cope with water deficit stress. These mechanisms can be categorized into escape, avoidance and tolerance strategies. Avoidance mechanisms are employed to maintain the balance between water uptake and water loss, while tolerance mechanisms are trying to keep the plant functions the same level as unstressed level. Major molecular mechanisms attributed as tolerance strategies are including osmotic adjustment, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) scavenging, cellular components protection and membrane lipid changes, hormone inductions. Huge number of metabolites are contributed into these diverse mechanisms, but broadly can be classified as amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and secondary metabolites. In this review, role of these compounds are discussed in the contributed mechanisms against water deficit stress. Identification of these substances (key plant products) and related biochemical processes of drought tolerance might help plant breeders and researchers in different ways such as shortening and facilitating selection procedure in plant breeding programs, improving drought tolerance of sensitive varieties either by transferring related genes or simply exogenous application.
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