AbstractFicus (Moraceae) is one of the most diverse plant genera, which maintains an obligate mutualism with their pollinator wasps and interactions with a large number of frugivores. Based on field work, revision of literature, and 6,150 herbarium specimens housed at CH, CHAP, CHAPA, CICY, CIMI, EBUM, ENCB, F, FCME, HUAP, HUMO, IBUG, IEB, INIF, MEXU, MO, NY, SLPM, QMEX, UAMIZ, UAS, UAT, UJAT, US, XAL, and ZEA, 22 species of Ficus (Moraceae) in Mexico are recognized. Five species belong to subgenus Pharmacosycea and 17 to subgenus Urostigma. An identification key, descriptions, synonymy, taxonomic problems, and illustrations are provided. The states of Chiapas and Oaxaca were the states with more remarkable richness (19 species). At species level, F. cotinifolia and F. pertusa showed the widest distribution (24 states). Three species are endemic to Mexico (F. lapathifolia, F. petiolaris, and F. pringlei) and F. popenoei is recorded for fi rst time in this country.
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