Phytosociology of a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in the State of Michoacán, Mexico

keywords: associations, low-height tropical jungle, Mexico, phytocenotic diversity, tropical caduccifolius forest

Abstract

Background: seasonally dry tropical forests are considered critical and important ecosystems because they harbor exceptional biological diversity. Mexico lacks sound phytosociological studies of Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest and Michoacán is no exception. The present study may be regarded the first phytosociological in most of the Mexican pacific coast where seasonally dry tropical forests occurs.

Questions/Objective: We aimed at describing the representative plant associations of the seasonally dry tropical forest, distributed on western Michoacán and to provide a sintaxonomic classification framework based on the floristic differentiation of the recognized communities and highlight its phytocenotic diversity.

Study site and dates: Estado de Michoacán; 20 years.

Methods: A total of 82 phytosociological inventories were conducted. Data were submitted to multivariate two-way indicator species analyses to depict plant communities and their ecological affinities.

Results: From its analysis and interpretation, nine plant groups were differentiated, of which all but one was given the rank of association, which are Lysilomo acapulcensis–Heliocarpetum terebinthinacei, Ceibo aesculifoliae–Lysilometum divaricatae, Caesalpinio platylobae-Cordietum elaeagnoidis, Cochlospermo vitifolii-Lueheetum candidae, Lysilomo divaricatae-Cordietum elaeagnoidis; Stenocereo quevedonis-Cordietum selerianae, Guazumo ulmifoliae-Cordietum elaeagnoidis¸ Lonchocarpo huetamoensis-Cordietum elaeagnoidis and the community of Spondias purpurea-Cochlospermum vitifolium.

Conclusions: Comparative floristic and structural profiles among plant communities permitted us to distinguish their bioclimatic relationships. Diagnostic species representative of all plant associations were selected and used for sintaxonomic nomenclature.  Plant associations were finally array along bioclimatic and altitudinal gradients and showed in arranged phytosociological tables. The plant association/community’descriptions permitted to compare structural physiognomy, floristic composition, ecological affinities, distribution patterns and bioclimatic liaison among them.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Phytosociology of a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in the State of Michoacán, Mexico

References

Antaramián E. 2005. Clima. En: Villaseñor LE, editor. La Biodiversidad en Michoacán: Estudio de Estado. México: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Secretaría de Urbanismo y Medio Ambiente. Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, 25–28.
Braun-Blanquet J. 1979. Fitosociología. Bases para el estudio de las comunidades vegetales. Madrid: Ediciones Blume.
Burgos A, Maass M. 2004. Vegetation change associated with land-use in tropical dry forest areas of Western Mexico. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 104(3): 475-481. DOI:10.1016/j.agee.2004.01.038.
Bullock, SH, Mooney HA, Medina E. editores. 1995. Seasonally dry tropical forests. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Calderón de RG, Rzedowski J. 2001. Flora Fanerogámica del Valle de México. 2ª edición. México: Instituto de Ecología, A. C. y Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad.
Castillo A, Torres A, Velázquez A, Bocco G. 2005. The Use Of Ecological Science By Rural Producers: A Case Study In Mexico. Ecological Applications 15(2):745–756. DOI: 10.1890/03-5360.
Ceballos G, Martínez L, García A, Espinoza E, Bezaury J, Dirzo A. 2010. Diversidad, amenazas y áreas prioritarias para la conservación de las selvas secas del Pacífico de México. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica, CONABIO, CONANP, Alianza WWF-TELCEL, Ecociencia S. C., TELMEX.
De Ita-Martínez C, Barradas V. 1986. El clima y los patrones de producción agrícola en una selva baja caducifolia de la costa de Jalisco, México. Biótica 11: 237–245.
Dirzo R, Young HS, Mooney HA, Ceballos G. editores. 2011. Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests: Ecology and Conservation. Washington: Island Press; 279–300.
[FAO] Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Agricultura y la Alimentación. 2002. Evaluación de los Recursos Forestales Mundiales 2000. Informe Principal. Roma: Estudio FAO Montes 140; 384.
Figueroa F, Sánchez-Cordero V. 2008. Effectiveness of natural protected areas to prevent land use and land cover change in Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation 17(13): 3223–3240. DOI:10.1007/s10531-008-9423-3.
García E, Soto C, Miranda F. 1961. Larrea y Clima. Annales del Instituto de Biología 1:133-171
García E, Reyna T, Sierra R. 1970. Carta de climas, a escala 1:500 000. Clasificación de climas según el sistema de Köppen modificado por García. CETENAL-Instituto de Geografía, México.
García E. 2004. Modificaciones al Sistema de Clasificación Climática de Köppen. Serie Libros No.6. México: Instituto de Geografía y UNAM.
Garduño VH. 2005. El relieve. In: Villaseñor LE, (Ed.). La Biodiversidad en Michoacán: Estudio de Estado. México: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Secretaría de Urbanismo y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo; 21–24.
Grandin, U. 2006. PC?ORD version 5: A user?friendly toolbox for ecologists. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17(6), 843-844.
Gentry AH. 1982. Patterns of Neotropical plant species diversity. Evololutionary Biology 15:1–84. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4615-6968-8_1.
Gentry AH. 1988. Changes in plant community diversity and floristic composition on environment and geographical gradients. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 75:1–34. DOI:10.2307/239946.4
Géhu JM. 2006. Dictionnaire de Sociologie et synécoloie végétales. Berlín-Stuttgart: J. Cramer.
Gillespie TW, Grijalva A, Farris ChN. 2000. Diversity, composition and structure of tropical dry forests in Central America. Plant Ecology 147:37-47. DOI:10.1023/A:1009848525399.
Gopar LF, Velázquez A., G. Azcárate, J. 2015. Bioclimatic mapping as a new methodo assess effects of climatic change. Ecosphere 6(1)1-12. DOI:10.1890/ES14-00138.1.
Kent M. & Coker P. 1992. Vegetation description and Analysis. A Practical Approach. Belhaven Press. London. 363 pp.
Köppen W. 1948. Climatología. México: Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Hernández-Toro I. 2003. Flora y Vegetación de entre los ríos Tecolotlán y María García, Jalisco, México. Tesis de Doctorado, Universidad de Salamanca.
Hill MO. 1979. TWINSPAN-A Fortran program for arranging multivariate dat in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. New York: Cornell University, Ithaca.
Houghton R, Lefkowitz A, Skole DL. 1991. Changes in the landscape of Latin America between 1859 and 1985. I. Progressive loss of forest. Forest Ecology Management 38:143–172. DOI:10.1016/0378-1127(91)90140-Q.
INEGI (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía). http://www.inegi.org.mx/default.aspx. Consultado en julio de 2018.
International Plant Name Index (www.ipni.org).
Janzen D. 1988. Tropical dry forest, the most endangered major tropical ecosystem. In: Wilson EO. Editor. Biodiversity. Washington DC: Nacional Academy Press; 130-137.
Lambin EF. 1997. Modelling and monoring land-cover changes processes in tropical regions. Prog ress in Physical Geography 21:375–393. DOI:10.1177/030913339702100303.
Lott E, Bullock SH, Solís-Magallanes E. 1987. Floristic diversity and structure of upland and arroyo forest of Coastal Jalisco. Biotropica 19:228–235. doi:10.2307/2388340.
Ludwig JA, Reynolds JF. 1988. Statistical Ecology: A Primer on Methods and Computing. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Maass, JM, Balvanera P, Castillo A, Daily GC, Mooney HA, Ehrlich P, Quesada M, Miranda A, Jaramillo VJ. et al. 2005. Ecosystem services of tropical dry forests: insights from long-term ecological and social research on the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Ecology and Society 10(1):17. DOI:10.5751/ES-01219-100117.
Macías-Rodríguez MÁ, Peinado M, Giménez de Azcárate J, Aguirre JL, Delgadillo J. 2014. Clasificacio?n bioclima?tica de la vertiente del Paci?fico mexicano y su relacio?n con la vegetacio?n potencial. Acta Botanica Mexicana 109: 133-165. DOI:10.21829/abm109.2014. 194.
Mccune B, Mefford MJ. 1999. PC-ORD. Multivariate analysis of Ecological Data, Version 4.0 for Windows.
McVaugh R. 1987. Flora Novo-Galiciana (Leguminosae). Vol. 5. Michigan: Univ. Michigan Herb. Ann Arbor.
Martínez-Ramos M. 1995. Regeneración natural y diversidad de especies arbóreas en selvas húmedas. En: Delfin GH, Parra TV, Echazarreta OO. (Eds). Conocimiento y manejo de las selvas de la península de Yucatán. México: Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán; 27–55.
Mendoza MA, Velázquez A, Larrazábal A, Toledo F, López J, Bocco G. 2009. Atlas fisicogeográfico de la cuenca de Tepalcatepec. México: Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales. Instituto Nacional de Ecología. CIGA-UNAM.
Mickel JT, Beitel MJ. 1988. Pteridophyte flora of Oaxaca, Mexico. Vol. 46. New York: Mem. New York Bot. Gard.
Miles L, Newton AC, Defries RS, Ravilious C, May I, Blyth S, Kapos V, Gordon JE. 2006. A global overview of the conservation status of tropical dry forest. Journal of Biogeography 33: 491–505. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2699.2005.01424.x.
Miranda F, Hernández-X. E. 2014. Los tipos de vegetación de México y su clasificación. México: Ediciones Científicas Universitarias.
Murphy P, Lugo E. 1986. Ecology of tropical dry forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:67–88. DOI:10.1146/annurev.es.17.110186.000435.
Peinado M, Aguirre JL, Delgadillo J, Macías MÁ. 2008. A phytosociological and phytogeographical survey of the coastal vegetation of western North America. Part I: plant communities of Baja California, Mexico. Plant Ecology 196:27-60. DOI:10.1007/s11258-007-9334-5.
Pennington TD, Sarukhán J. 2005. Árboles tropicales de México. Manual para la identificación de las principales especies. México: UNAM. Fondo de Cultura Económica.
Pennington RT, Lavin M, Oliveira-Filho A. 2009. Woody Plant Diversity, Evolution and Ecology in the Tropics: Perspectives from Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic 40:437-457. DOI:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.110308.120327.
Pérez-Vega A, Velázquez A, Giménez de Azcárcate J. 2010. Aproximación Geobotánica del Bosque Tropical Seco Caducifolio en la Microcuenca del Río San José de Chila. Michoacán, México. Braun-Blanquetia 46:351–359.
Portillo-Quintero CA, Sánchez-Azofeifa GA. 2010. Extent and conservation of tropical dry forests in the Americas. Biological Conservation 143:144–155. DOI:10.1016/j.biocon. 2009. 09.020.
Quesada M, Sanchez-Azofeifa GA, Alvarez-Añorve M, Stoner K, Avila-Cabadilla Luis, Calvo-Alvarado J, Castillo A, Espírito-Santo M, Fagundes M, Fernandes G, Gamon J, Lopezaraiza-Mikel M, Lawrence D, Morellato P, Powers J, Neves F, Rosas-Guerrero V, Sayago R, Sanchez-Montoya G. 2009. Succession and management of tropical dry forests in the Americas: Review and new perspectives. Forest Ecology Management 258: 1014-1024. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2009.06.023.
Ricker M, Daly DC. 1998. Botánica Económica en Bosques Tropicales. Principios y métodos para su estudio y aprovechameinto. México: Ed. Diana.
Rivas-Martínez S, Sánchez-Mata D, Costa M. 1999. North American boreal and western temperate forest vegetation (Sintaxonomical synopsis of the potential natural plant communities of North America, II). Itinera Geobotanica 12:5–316.
Rzedowski J. 1978. Vegetación de México. México: Ed. Limusa.
Rzedowski J. 1991. El endemismo en la flora fanerogámica mexicana: una apreciación analítica preliminar. Acta Botanica Mexicana 15: 47–64.
Rzedowski J, Calderón de Rzedowski G. 1985-2015. Flora del Bajío y de Regiones Adyacentes. Instituto de Ecología A.C.
Sanchez-Azofeifa A, Kalacska M, Quesada M, Calvo-Alvarado J, Nassar J, Rodríguez J. 2005. Need for Integrated Research for a Sustainable Future Tropical Dry Forests. Conservation Biology 19(2):285–286. DOI:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.s01_1.x.
Sánchez-Azofeifa A, Quesada M, Rodríguez J, Nassar J, Stoner K, Castillo A,Garvin T, Zent E, Calvo-Alvarado J, Kalacska M, Fajardo L, Gamon J, Cuevas-Reyes P. 2005a. Research Priories for Neotropical Dry Forests. Biotropica 37(4):477–485. DOI:10.1046/j.0950-091x. 2001.00153.x-i1.
Sanchez-Azofeifa A, Powers J, Fernandes GW, Quesada M. 2014. Tropical dry forests in the Americas: ecology, conservation and management. USA: CRC Press.
Trejo I, Dirzo R. 2000. Deforestation of seasonally dry tropical forest: a national and local analysis in Mexico. Biological Conservation 94:133–142. DOI:10.1016/S0006-3207(99)00188-3.
Tropicos.org. Missouri Botanical Garden. (21 Sep 2018)
Tüxen R. 1956. Die heutige potentielle natürliche Vegetation als genenstand der vege-tationskartierung. Angew Pflanzensoz Stolzenau 13:5–42.
Velázquez A, Medina C, Durán E, Amador A, Gopar LF. 2016. Standardized Hierarchical Vegetation Classification - Mexican and Global Patterns. Berlin: Springer Verlag.
van der Maarel E. 1979. Transformation of cover-abundance values in phytosociology and its effects on community similarity. Vegetatio 39:97–114. DOI:10.1007/BF00052021.
Weber HE, Moravec J, Theurillat JP. 2000. International Code of Phytosociological nomenclature. 3rd edition. Journal of Vegetation Science 11:739–768. DOI:10.2307/3236580.
Westhoff V, van der Maarel E. 1978. The Braun Blanquet approach. En: Whittaker R.H. (Ed.): Classification of Plant Communities. 2nd ed. Netherlands: Junk, The Hague; 287-399.
Published
2020-10-06
How to Cite
Medina-GarcíaC., VelázquezA., Giménez de AzcárateJ., Macías-RodríguezM. Ángel, LarrazábalA., Gopar-MerinoL. F., López-BarreraF., & Pérez-VegaA. (2020). Phytosociology of a Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest in the State of Michoacán, Mexico. Botanical Sciences, 98(4), 441-467. https://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.2568
Section
ECOLOGY / ECOLOGÍA