Population structure and quantitative characteristics of Tetracentron sinense (Trochodendraceae) in Leigong Mountain Nature Reserve, China
Background: Knowledge of plant population structure facilitates conservation, management, and utilization of endangered plants.
Research question: What is the current status of the natural populations of Tetracentron sinense in Leigong Mountain Nature Reserve (LMNR) and what future population development trends can be predicted?
Studied species: Tetracentron sinense
Study site and period of research: T. sinense populations in LMNR in China in 2018.
Methods: The population structure and quantity dynamics of four typical patches were studied using static life tables, survival curves, survival analyses, and time series analyses.
Results: The age structures of the T. sinense populations were spindle-shaped, with few seedlings and saplings, and Deevey type II and Ⅲ survival curves. The mortality rate (qx) of each patch increased quickly, and then plateaued, finally increasing again. Survival rate (Sx) showed a contrary trend to qx. Trends in cumulative mortality rate (F(i)), killing power (Kx), mortality density (f(ti)), and hazard rate (λ(ti)) with increasing age class were similar: increasing at a younger age, gradually stabilizing in middle age, and then increasing slightly in older age. The number of individuals in these T. sinense populations was predicted to decrease sharply in future, with younger individuals being seriously deficient. The results showed that the natural populations of T. sinense in the LMNR were relatively stable but were in an early stage of decline.
Conclusions: The lack of younger individuals might reflect a bottleneck for regeneration of T. sinense populations, leading to a decline in population size.
Armesto JJ, Casassa I, Dollenz O. 1992. Age structure and dynamics of Patagonian beech forests in Torres del Paine National Park, Chile. Vegetation, 98(1): 13 - 22.
Bi XL, Hong W, Wu CZ, Yan SJ. 2001. Analysis on the life table of castanopsis eyrei population in Wuyi Mountain. Chinese Journal of Tropical Subtropical Flora, 9(03):243 - 247.
Brodie C, Howle G, Fortin MJ. 1995. Development of a Populus balsamifera clone in subarctic Québec reconstructed from spatial analyses. Journal of Ecology, 83(2): 309 - 320.
Cao LL, Gan XH, Song HE. 2012. Effects of different geographical provenances and matrix on seed germination and seedling initial growth of Tetracentron sinense. Guihaia, 32(5):656 - 662.
Chapman JL, Reiss M J. 2001. Ecology: Principles and Application (2nd edn). Cambridge University Press, Beijing, 23 - 48.
Chen XD. 1998. Study on dynamic quantitative analysis of plant population and community structure. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 2(18):104 - 107.
Deevey ESJr. 1947. Life tables for natural populations of animals. Quarterly Review of Biology, 22(4): 283 - 314.
Doweld AB. 1998. Carpology, seed anatomy and taxonomic relationships of Tetracentron (Tetracentraceae) and Trochodendron (Trochodendraceae). Annals of botany, 82: 413 - 443.
Dutta G, Devi A. 2013. Plant diversity, population structure, and regeneration status in disturbed tropical forests in assam, northeast India. Journal Forestry Research, 24(4), 715 - 720.
Feng SY. 1983, Survival analysis (III). Mathematics practice and understanding, (2): 70 - 76.
Fu DZ, Bartholomew B. 2001. Tetracentraceae. In: Wu CY, Raven PH (eds) Flora of China, vol 6. Science Press/Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing/St. Louis, p 125.
Fu LG. 1992. China Plant Red Data Book. Beijing: Science Press, 590 - 591.
Gan X, Xie D, Cao L. 2012. Sporogenesis and development of gametophytes in an endangered plant, Tetracentron sinense Oliv. Biological Research, 45(4):393.
Gan X, Cao L, Zhang X, et al. 2013. Floral biology, breeding system and pollination ecology of an endangered tree Tetracentron sinense, Oliv. (Trochodendraceae). Botanical Studies, 54(1):50.
Grubb, PJ. 1977. The maintenance of species‐richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biological Reviews, 52(1), 107 - 145.
Guedje NM, Lejoly J, Nkongmeneck BA, et al. 2003. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 177(1): 231 - 241.
Guo LJ. 2009. Population Structure and Dynamics of the Endangered Plant Emmenopterys henryi. Journal of Wuhan Botanical Research, 27(5): 509 - 514.
Gupta R, Chadha KL. 1995. Medicinal and aromatic plant research in India. pp. In: KL. Chadha & R. Gupta (eds.) Advances in Horticulture, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Volume. 11. Malhotra House, New Delhi, India. 1 - 43.
Han HY, Li S, Gan XH, et al. 2017. Phenotypic diversity in natural populations of an endangered plant Tetracentron sinense. Botanical Sciences, 95(2): 283-294.
Han HY, Xu N, Li S, et al. 2015. Effects of low temperature treatment on seed germination characteristics in Tetracentron sinense Oliv. Plant Diversity, 37(05): 586 - 594.
Harcombe PA. 1987. Tree Life Tables: Simple birth, growth, and death data encapsulate life histories and ecological roles. Bioscience, 37(8): 557 - 568.
Harper JL.1977. Population Biology of Plants．London: Academic Press.
Hett JM, Loucks OL. 1976. Age structure models of balsam fir and eastern hemlock. Journal of Ecology, 64(3): 1029 - 1044.
Jiang H, 1992. Population ecology of spruce. Beijing: China Forestry Press, 55 - 135.
Jasrai Y, Wala TB. 2001. Curculigo orchioides Gaertn. (Kali musli): an endangered medicinal herb. pp. In: I. A. Khan & A. Khanum (eds.) Role of Biotechnology in Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Vol. IV. Ukaaz Publication, Hyderabad, India. 89 - 95.
Kang HJ, Chen ZL, Liu P, et al. 2007. The population structure and distribution pattern of Emmenopterys henryi in Dapanshan Natural Reserve of Zhejiang Province. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 27 (1): 0389 - 0396.
Li HC, Gan XH, Zhang ZP, et al. 2015. Effects of altitudes and the DBH of seed trees on biological characteristics of Tetracentron sinense (Tetracentraceae) Seeds. Plant Diversity, 37(2): 177 - 183.
Li S, Gan XH, Han HY, et al. 2016. Leaf phenotypic traits of Tetracentron sinense, an endangered plant species. Forest Research, 29(5): 687 - 697.
Li S, Gan X, Han H, et al. 2018. Low within-population genetic diversity and high genetic differentiation among populations of the endangered plant Tetracentron sinense Oliver revealed by inter-simple sequence repeat analysis. Annals of Forest Science, 75(3): 74.
Luo JD, Gan XH, Jia XJ, et al. 2010. Biological characteristics of seeds of endangered plant Tetracentron sinense (Tetracentraceae). Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 32(3):204 - 210.
Molles MC. 2002. Ecology Concept and Applications (2nd edn.). McGraw-Hill Companies, New York, 186 - 254.
Pala NA, Negi AK, Gokhale Y, et al. Diversity and regeneration status of Sarkot Van Panchyat in Garhwal Himalaya, India. Journal of Forestry Research, 2012, 23(3): 399 - 404.
Phama JO, Panagos MD, Myburgh WJ, et al. 2014. The population status of the endangered endemic plant Aloe peglerae: Area of occupancy, population structure, and past population trends. South African Journal of Botany, 93: 247 - 251.
Pielou EC. 1977. A Wiley-Interscience Publication, New York, Chichester, Brisbane, Toronto, Mathematical Ecology, 15 - 95.
Qin HN. 2004. Tetracentraceae. In: Wu CY (ed) Flora reipublicae popularis sinicae, vol 1. Science Press, Beijing, pp 767 - 769.
Silvertown JW. 1982. Introduction to plant population ecology, Longman, London, 75 - 155.
Skoglund J, Verwijst T. 1989. Age structure of woody species populations in relation to seed rain, germination and establishment along the river Dalalven, Sweden. Vegetation, 82(1): 25 - 34.
Smith DP, Keyfitz N. 1947. Life Tables for Natural Populations of Animals. Quarterly Review of Biology, 22(4): 283.
Tang CQ, Peng MC, He LY, et al. 2013. Population persistence of a Tertiary relict tree Tetracentron sinense on the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan, China. Journal of Plant Research, 126(5): 651.
Tang CQ, Ohsawa M. 2009. Ecology of subtropical evergreen broadleaved forests of Yunnan, southwestern China as compared to those of southwestern Japan. Journal of Plant Research 122:335 - 350.
Tang CQ, Li T, Zhu X. 2007. Structure and regeneration dynamics of three subtropical midmontane moist evergreen broadleaved forests in southwestern China, with special reference to bamboo in the forest understories. Canada Journal of Forest Research, 37:2701 - 2714.
Tian Z, Li H, Li W, et al. 2018, Structural characteristics and niches of dominant tree populations in Tetracentron sinense communities: Implications for conservation. Botanical Sciences, 96(2):157 - 167.
Wang LI, Guang L, Huang YJ, et al. 2006. Age structure and niche of the endangered plant in Mount Huangshan, China. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 26 (6): 1862 - 1871.
Wang B, Li MG, Peng SL. 1995. Plant population biology. Guangzhou, China: Guangdong Higher Education Press.
Wratten S.1980. Field and Laboratory Exercises in Ecology. London: Edward Amold.
Wu CZ, Hong W, Xie JS, et al. 2000. Life table analysis of Tsuga longibracteata population. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology, 11(3): 333 - 336.
Xiao YA, He P, Li XG, et al. 2004. Study on numeric dynamics of natural populations of the endangered species Disanthus cercidifolius var. Longipes. Acta Phytoecologica Sinica, 28(2): 252 - 257.
Xie TT, Su PX, Zhou ZJ, et al. 2014, Population structure and dynamic characteristics of sand and date in the transitional zone of desert oasis. Journal of ecology, 34(15):4272 - 4279.
Xie, ZQ, Chen WL. 1999. The endangering causes and preserving strategies for Cathaya argyophylla, a plant endemic to China. Acta Ecol. Sin., 23(1): 1 - 7.
Yang LR, Zhang ZL, Yun Y, et al. 2008, Population structure and dynamics of endangered plant Dracaena cambodiana Pierre ex Gagn. Chinese Journal of ecology, 38(08): 2802 - 2815.
Yang FX, Wang SQ, Xu HG, et al. 1991. Survival Analysis Theory and its Application in Life Table Research. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 11(2): 153 - 158.
Zhang WH, Zu YG. 1999. Study on the life table and survival curve of the endangered species of salvia chinensis and its comparison with popularly planted salvia chinensis. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, (01):77 - 87.
Zhang P, Gao SZ. 1990. Wood anatomy of Tetracentraceae. Acta Botanical. Boreal-Occid. Sinica, 10(3): 185 - 189.
Zhang QY, Zhang YC, Luo P, et al. 2007. Ecological characteristics of a Sabina saltuaria population at timberline on the south-facing slope of Baima Snow Mountain, southwest China. Chin Journal of Plant Ecology, 31(5): 857 - 864.
Zhang JD, Hull V, Ouyang ZY, et al. 2017. Modeling activity patterns of wildlife using time-series analysis. Ecological and Evolution, 7(8), 2575 - 2584.
Zhang WH, Wang YP, Kang YH, et al. 2004. Study on the relationship between Larix chinens is population's structure and environment factors. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 24(1): 41 - 47.
Zhang ZX, Liu P, Cai MZ, et al. 2008. Population quantitative characteristics and dynamics of an endangered plant Tsuga tchekiangensis in Jiulongshan Nature Reserve. Journal of Plant Ecology, 32(5): 1146 - 1156.
Zhou JL, Zheng SZ, Yang Z. 1995. Plant population ecology. Beijing: Higher Education Press.
Copyright (c) 2020 Botanical Sciences
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.