Síndromes de dispersión de semillas en comunidades de bosque mesófilo de montaña, en la región centro de Veracruz, México

  • Tania Lizbeth Velázquez-Escamilla Universidad Veracruzana
  • Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo Instituto de Ecología A. C.
  • Betsabé Ruiz-Guerra Instituto de Ecología A. C.
  • Noé Velázquez-Rosas Universidad Veracruzana http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7768-2279
Keywords: dispersal agents, frugivory, ornitochory, sinzoochory, vegetation structure

Abstract

Background: Seed dispersal syndromes allow obtaining patterns potential dispersers between communities, environments and contrasting taxa, helping to understand the influence of dispersers on the composition, structure and dynamics of plant communities. This information is very limited in mountain cloud forests.

Questions: How is the frequency of seed dispersal syndromes modified according to the composition woody species and strata of plant communities? The seed dispersal syndromes are useful to describe potential dispersers in mountain cloud forests?

Study sites and dates: The study was carried out during 2014 in three mountain cloud forests communities in central Veracruz.

Methods: Seed dispersal syndromes of 64 different species plants were determined in the three study sites, based on the morphological characteristics of the diasporas and with bibliographic support. The frequency of the syndromes between communities and strata (understory and canopy) was compared.

Results:  The frequencies of the seed dispersal syndromes did not change between communities, but they did within each community. Ornitochory was the most relevant syndrome, its importance changes depending on the density of the plants and the strata. With the help of bibliographic information, it was verified that 75 % of the plants identified with ornithochory syndrome are dispersed by birds.

Conclusions: Ornitochory was the most relevant syndrome, although its importance was modified according to the composition and structure of the community. It is necessary to explore the influence of birds on the patterns of distribution and recruitment of the plants of these forests.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biographies

Tania Lizbeth Velázquez-Escamilla, Universidad Veracruzana
Centro de Investigaciones Tropicales
Cecilia Díaz-Castelazo, Instituto de Ecología A. C.
Red de Interacciones Multitróficas
Betsabé Ruiz-Guerra, Instituto de Ecología A. C.
Red de Interacciones Multitróficas
Síndromes de dispersión de semillas en comunidades de bosque mesófilo de montaña, en la región centro de Veracruz, México

References

Armesto JJ, Rozzi R. 1989. Seed dispersal syndromes in the rain forest of Chiloé: evidence for the importance of biotic dispersal in a temperate rain forest. Journal Biogeography 16: 219-226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2845258

Arroyo-Chacón E, Riechers-Pérez A, Naranjo EJ. Rivera-Velázquez G. 2013. Riqueza, abundancia y diversidad de mamíferos silvestres entre hábitats en el Parque Nacional Cañón del Sumidero, Chiapas, México. Therya 3: 647-676. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12933/therya-13-140

Baltazar-Hernández S. 2014. La importancia de la dispersión de semillas en la recuperación del bosque mesófilo de montaña del centro de Veracruz, México. MSc. Thesis, Instituto de Ecología, AC.

Barbosa-Albuquerque L, Velázquez A, Mayorga-Saucedo R. 2006. Solanaceae composition, pollination and seed dispersal syndromes in Mexican Mountain Cloud Forest. Acta Botanica Brasilica 3: 599-613. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062006000300010

Brown AD, Kappelle M. 2001. Introducción a los bosques nublados del Neotrópico: una síntesis regional. In: Kapelle M, Brown AD, eds. Bosques Nublados del Neotrópico. Santo Domingo de Heredia: INBIO, pp. 25-40. ISBN-13: 978-9968702508

Bruijnzeel LA, Scatena FN, Hamilton LS. 2010. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0521760355

Buitrón-Jurado G, Ramírez N. 2014. Dispersal spectra, diaspore size and the importance of endozoochory in the equatorial Andean montane forest. Flora Morphology, Dristribution, Functional Ecology Plants 209: 299-311. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2014.03.009

Carlo TA, Morales JM. 2016. Generalist birds promote tropical forest regeneration and increase plant diversity via rare-biased seed dispersal. Ecology 97: 1819-1831. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/15-2147.1

Carlo TA, Collazo JA, Groom MJ. 2004. Influences of fruit diversity and abundance on bird use of two shaded coffee plantations. Biotropica 36: 602-614. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2004.tb00354.x

Cavieres LA, Papic C, Castor C. 1999. Variación altitudinal en los síndromes de dispersión de semillas de la vegetación andina de la cuenca del río Molina, Chile Central (33°S). Gayana Botanica 56: 115-123.

Chad EL, Clark TW, Derting TL. 2001. Food selection by the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) on the basis of energy and protein contents. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 562- 568. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1139/z01-015

Chaín GA. 2005. Síndromes de Dispersión en el Mosaico Vegetacional de la Región de Nizada (Oaxaca), México. BSc Thesis. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Chapman H, Cordeiro NJ, Dutton P, Wenny D, Kitamura S, Kaplin B, Melo FPL, Lawes MJ. 2016. Seed-dispersal ecology of tropical montane forest. Journal of Tropical Ecology 32: 1-18. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467416000389

Chazdon RL, Williams K, Field CB. 1988. Interactions between crown structure and light environment in five rain forest Piper species. American Journal of Botany 75: 1459-1471. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2444696

Coley PD. 1983. Herbivory and defensive characteristics of tree species in a lowland tropical forest. Ecology Monographs 53: 209-234. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1942495

Coordinación General del Medio Ambiente. 2006. Programa de Manejo del Área Natural "La Martinica" Banderilla, Veracruz. Veracruz: Secretaría de Desarrollo Social y Medio Ambiente, Gobierno del Estado de Veracruz.

Cortés A, Rosenmann M, Bozinovic F. 2000. Water economy in rodents: evaporative water loss and metabolic water production. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 73: 311-321. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2000000200006

Dalling J. 2002. Ecología de semillas. In: Guariguata MR, Kattan GH, eds. Ecología y Conservación de Bosques Neotropicales. Costa Rica: Asociación de Editoriales Universitarias de América Latina y el Caribe, pp. 345-375. ISBN-13: 978-9968801119

Deckers B, Verheyen K, Vanhellemont M, Maddens E, Muys B, Hermy M. 2008. Impact of avian frugivores on dispersal and recruitment of the invasive Prunus serotina in an agricultural landscape. Biological Invasions 10: 717-727. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10530-007-9164-3

Dormann CF. 2011. How to be a specialist? Quantifying specialisation in pollination networks. Network Biology 1: 1-20.

Dormann CF, Gruber B, Fruend J. 2008. Introducing the bipartite Package: Analysing Ecological Networks. R news 8: 8 - 11.

Escalante P, Navarro-Sigüenza AG, Peterson AT. 1993. A geographic, ecological and historical analysis of land bird diversity in Mexico. In: Ramamoorthy TP, Bye R, Lot A, Fa J, eds. Biological Diversity of Mexico: Origins and Distributions. New York: Oxford University Press, 279-304. ISBN-13: 978-0195066746

Fischer KE, Chapman CA. 1993. Frugivores and fruit syndromes: differences in patterns at the genus and species level. Oikos 66: 472-482. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/3544942

Fjeldsa J, Krabbe N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Museum Tusculanum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN-13: 978-8788757163

Galindo-González J, Guevara S, Sosa VJ. 2000. Bat- and bird- generated seed rains at isolated trees in pastures in a tropical rainforest. Conservation Biology 14: 1963-1703. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1523-1739.2000.99072.x

Ganesh T, Davidar P. 2001. Dispersal mode of tree species in the wet forest of southern Western Ghats. Current Science 80: 394-399.

García-Estrada C, Damon A, Sánchez-Hernández C, Soto-Pinto L, Ibarra-Núñez G. 2012. Diets of frugivorous bats in montane rain forest and coffee plantations in southeastern Chiapas, México. Biotropica 44: 394-401. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2011.00816.x

Gentry AH. 1982. Patterns of Neotropical Plant Species Diversity. In: Hecht MK, Wallace B, Prance GT, eds. Evolutionary Biology. Boston: Springer, 1-84. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-6968-8_1

Gentry AH. 1995. Patterns of diversity and floristic composition in neotropical montane forest. In: Churchill SP, Balslev H, Forero E, Luteyn JL, eds. Biodiversity and Conservation of Neotropical Montane Forest. New York: The New York Botanical Garden, 89-102. ISBN-13: 978-0893274009

Givnish TJ. 1998. Adaptative plant evolution on islands: classical patterns, molecular data, new insights. In: Grant P, ed. Evolution on Islands. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 281-304. ISBN-13: 978-0198501725

Givnish TJ. 1999. On the causes of gradients in tropical tree diversity. Journal of Ecology 87:193-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1999.00333.x

Gual-Díaz M, Rendón-Correa A. 2014. Bosques Mesófilos de Montaña: Diversidad, Ecología y Manejo. México DF: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. ISBN: 978-607-8328-07-9

Guariguata MR, Kattan GH. 2002. Ecología y Conservación de Bosques Neotropicales. Costa Rica: Asociación de Editoriales Universitarias de América Latina y el Caribe,. ISBN-13: 978-9968801119

Guzmán-Guzmán J, Williams-Linera G. 2006. Edge effect on acorn removal and oak seedling survival in Mexican lower montane forest fragments. New Forests 31: 487-495. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-005-2015-0

Hamilton LS, Juvik JO, Scatena FN. 1995. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests. New York: Springer-Verlag. eBook ISBN: 978-1-4612-2500-3; DOI 10.1007/978-1-4612-2500-3

Hampe A, Bairlein F. 2000. Modified dispersal-related traits in disjunct populations of bird-dispersed Frangula alnus (Rhamnaceae): a result of its Quaternary distribution shifts? Ecography 23: 603-613. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2000.tb00179.x

Hernández-Baños B, Peterson AT, Navarro-Sigüenza AG, Escalante-Pliego P. 1995. Bird faunas of the humid montane forests of Mesoamerica: biogeographic patterns and priorities for conservation. Bird Conservation International 5: 251-277. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959270900001039

Hernández-Ladrón de Guevara I, Rojas-Soto OR, López-Barrera F, Puebla-Olivares F, Díaz-Castelazo C. 2012. Dispersión de semillas por aves en un paisaje de bosque mesófilo en el centro de Veracruz, México: su papel en la restauración pasiva. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 85: 89-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-078X2012000100007

Herrera CM. 1987. Vertebrate-dispersed plants of the Iberian Peninsula-a study of fruit characteristics. Ecological Monographs 57:305-331. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2937089

Herrera CM. 1989. Seed dispersal by animals: a role in angiosperm diversification? The American Naturalist 133: 309-322. https://doi.org/10.1086/284921

Herrera CM. 1992. Interspecific variation in fruit shape: allometry, phylogeny, and adaptation to dispersal agents. Ecology 73: 1832-1841. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1940034

Howe HF, Smallwood J. 1982. Ecology of seed dispersal. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 13: 201-28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.es.13.110182.001221

Howe HF, Westley LC. 1997. Ecology of pollination and seed dispersal. In: Crawley MJ, ed. Plant Ecology. Oxford: Blackwell Science, 262-283. ISBN-13: 978-0632036394

Janzen DH. 1967 Synchronization of sexual reproduction of trees within the dry season in Central America. Evolution 21: 620-637. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2406621

Johnson PS, Shifley SR, Rogers R. 2009. The ecology and silviculture of oaks. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing. ISBN-13: 978-1845934743

Jordano P. 1995. Angiosperm fleshy fruits and seed dispersers- a comparative analysis of adaptation and constraints in plants-animal interactions. The American Naturalist 145:163-191. https://doi.org/10.1086/285735

Jordano P. 2000. Fruits and frugivory. In: Fenner M, ed, Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, pp.125-162. ISBN-13: 978-0851994321

Kuhlmann M, Ribeiro JF. 2016. Evolution of seed dispersal in the Cerrado biome: ecological and phylogenetic considerations. Acta Botanica Brasilica 30: 271-282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-33062015abb0331

Levin SA, Murrell DJ. 2003.The community-level consequences of seed dispersal patterns. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematic 34: 549-574. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132400

Levin SA, Muller-Landau HC, Nathan R, Chave J. 2003. The ecology and evolution of seed dispersal: a theoretical perspective. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 34: 575-604. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.34.011802.132428

Loiselle B, Dirzo R. 2002. Plant–animal interactions and community structure. In: Chazdon RL, Whitmore TC, eds. Foundations of Tropical Forest Biology: Classic Papers with Commentaries. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 269-338. ISBN-13: 978-0226102252

Lomáscolo SB, Speranza P, Kimball RT. 2008. Correlated evolution of fig size and color supports the dispersal syndromes hypothesis. Oecologia 156: 783-796. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-008-1023-0

López M, Ramírez N. 1998. Síndromes de dispersión de diásporas de una comunidad arbustiva de la Guayana Venezolana. Ecotrópicos 11: 15-32.

Lord JM, Markey AS, Marshall J. 2002. Have frugivores influenced the evolution of fruit traits in New Zealand? In: Levey DJ, Silva WR, Galetti M, eds. Seed Dispersal and Frugivory: Ecology, Evolution and Conservation. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, 55-68. ISBN-13: 978-0851995250

Lord JM. 2004. Frugivore gape size and the evolution of fruit size and shape in southern hemisphere floras. Austral Ecology 29: 430-436. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-9993.2004.01382.x

Luna-Monterrojo VE. 1997. Estudio de vegetación y flora del municipio de Coatepec, Veracruz. Tesis de Licenciatura, Facultad de Biología, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Ver.

Martínez-Delgado E, Mellink E, Aguirre-Rivera JR, García-Moya E. 1996. Removal of piñon seeds by birds and rodents in San Luis Potosí México. The Southwestern Naturalist 41: 270-274.

Martínez-Orea Y, Castillo-Argüero S, Guadarrama-Chávez P. 2009. La dispersión de frutos y semillas y la dinámica de comunidades. Ciencias 96: 38-41.

Milewski AV. 1986. A comparison of bird-plant relationships in southern Australia and southern Africa. In: Ford HA, Paton DC, eds. The Dynamic Partnership: Birds and Plants in Southern Africa. Adelaide: Information Sa, pp. 111-118. ISBN: 9780724346400

Moles AT, Ackerly DD, Tweddle JC, Dickie JB, Smith R, Leishman MR, Mayfield MM, Pitman A, Wood JT, Westoby M. 2007. Global patterns in seed size. Global Ecology and Biogeography 16: 109-116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1466-8238.2006.00259.x

Nathan R, Katul G, Horn HS, Thomas SM, Oren R, Avissar R, Pacala SW, Levin SA. 2002. Mechanisms of long- distance dispersal of seeds by wind. Nature 418: 409-413. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/nature00844

Ozinga WA, Bekker RM, Schaminée JH, Van Groenendael JM. 2004. Dispersal potential in plant communities depends on environmental conditions. Journal of Ecology 92: 767-777. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00916.x

Perea R, San Miguel A, Gil L. 2014. Interacciones planta- animal en la regeneración de Quercus pyrenaica; ecología y gestión. Ecosistemas 23: 18-26. DOI: https://doi.org/10.7818/ECOS.2014.23-2.04

PRONATURA. 2013. Aves migratorias en su travesía por México. <http://www.pronatura-sur.org/web/nota.php?id=30> (acceso febrero 15, 2018).

Rodríguez-Estévez V, García A, Perea J, Mata C, Gómez AG. 2007. Producción de bellotas en la Dehesa: factores influyentes. Archivos de Zootecnia 56: 25-43.

Rosas-Guerrero V, Aguilar R, Martén-Rodríguez S, Asworht L, Lopezaraiza-Mikel M, Bastida JM, Quesada M. 2014. A quantitative review of pollination syndromes: do floral traits predict effective pollinators? Ecology Letters 17: 388-400. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/ele.12224

R Core Team. 2018. R, a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. <http://www.R-project.org> (acceso marzo 15, 2018).

Ruelas-Inzunza E, Aguilar-Rodríguez SH. 2010. La avifauna urbana del parque ecológico Macuiltépetl en Xalapa, Veracruz, México. Ornitología Neotropical 21: 87-103.

Scatena F, Bruijnzeel L, Bubb P. 2010. Setting the stage. In: Bruijnzeel LA, Scatena FN, Hamilton LS, eds. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests: Science for Conservation and Management. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp 3-13. ISBN-13: 978-0521760355

Schemske DW, Mittelbach GC, Cornell HV, Sobel JM, Roy K. 2009. Is there a latitudinal gradient in the importance of biotic interactions? Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 40: 245-269. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.39.110707.173430

Sinnott-Armstrong MA, Downie AE, Federman S, Valido A, Jordano P, Donoghue MJ. 2018. Global geographic patterns in the colours and sizes of animal‐dispersed fruits. Global Ecology and Bigeography 27: 1339-1351. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.12801

Snow DW. 1976. The Web of Adaptation: Bird Studies in the American Tropics. New York: Cornell University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0801493164

Snow D. 1981. Tropical Frugivorous birds and their food plants: a world survey. Biotropica 13: 1-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2387865

Snow DW. 1971. Evolutionary aspects of fruit eating by birds. Ibis 113: 194-202. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.1971.tb05144.x

Sobral-Griz LM, Machado ICS. 2001. Fruiting phenology and seed dispersal syndromes in caatinga, a tropical dry forest in the northeast of Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 17: 303-321. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266467401001201

Stiles EW. 1993.The influence of pulp lipids on fruit preference by birds. Vegetatio 107: 227-235.

Tackenberg O, Poschlod P, Boon S. 2003. Assessment of wind dispersal potential in plant species. Ecological Monographs 73:191-205. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1890/0012-9615(2003)073[0191:AOWDPI]2.0.CO;2

Terborgh J, Lopez L, Nuñez P, Rao M, Shahabuddin G, Orihuela G, Riveros M, Ascanio R, Adler GH, Lambert TD, Balbas L. 2001. Ecological Meltdown in predator-Free Forest Fragments Science 294: 1923-1926. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1064397

Terborgh J. 1977. Bird species diversity on an Andean elevation gradient. Ecology 58: 1007-1019. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/1936921

Toledo-Garibaldi T, Williams-Linera G. 2014. Tree diversity patterns in successive vegetation types along an elevation gradient in the Mountains of Eastern Mexico. Ecological Research 29: 1097-1104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11284-014-1196-4

van der Pijl L. 1972. Principles of Dispersal in Higher Plants. New York: Springer-Verlag. eBook ISBN: 978-3-642-96108-3; DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-96108-3

Vázquez FM. 1998. Semillas de Quercus: biología ecología y manejo. España: Publicaciones de la Secretaría General Técnica, Consejería de Agricultura y Comercio. ISBN: 84-8107-028-9

Vázquez GA, Givnish T. 1998. Altitudinal gradients in tropical forest composition, structure, and diversity in the Sierra de Manantlán. Journal of Ecology 86: 999-1020. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2745.1998.00325.x

Velázquez-Escamilla TL. 2016. Síndromes de dispersión en tres comunidades de bosque mesófilo de montaña. MSc. Thesis, Universidad Veracruzana.

Velázquez-Rosas N, Meave J, Vázquez-Santana S. 2002. Elevational variation of leaf traits in montane rain forest tree species at La Chinantla, southern México. Biotropica 34: 534-546. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2002.tb00572.x

Wang BC, Smith TB. 2002. Closing the seed dispersal loop. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17: 379-385. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02541-7

Wheelwright NT, Haber WA, Murray KG, Guindon C. 1984. Tropical fruit-eating birds and their food plants: a survey of a Costa Rican lower montane forest. Biotropica 16: 173-192. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2307/2388051

Williams-Linera G. 2003. Temporal and spatial phenological variation of understory shrubs in a tropical montane cloud forest. Biotropica 35: 28-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2003.tb00259.x

Williams-Linera G. 2012. El bosque de niebla del Centro de Veracruz: ecología, historia y destino en tiempos de fragmentación y cambio climático. Xalapa, Veracruz: Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Instituto de Ecología, AC. ISBN: 9707091010. http://www.inecol.edu.mx/librobosquedeniebla.pdf (consultado en nmarzo de 2017).

Williams-Linera G, Herrera F. 2003. Folivory, herbivores and environment in the understory of a tropical montane cloud forest. Biotropica 35: 67-73. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7429.2003.tb00263.x

Williams-Linera G. Toledo-Garibaldi M, Gallardo-Hernández C. 2013. How heterogeneous are the cloud forest communities in the mountains of central Veracruz, México? Plant Ecology 214: 685-701. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11258-013-0199-5

Published
2019-12-19
How to Cite
Velázquez-Escamilla, T. L., Díaz-Castelazo, C., Ruiz-Guerra, B., & Velázquez-Rosas, N. (2019). Síndromes de dispersión de semillas en comunidades de bosque mesófilo de montaña, en la región centro de Veracruz, México. Botanical Sciences, 97(4), 568-578. https://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.2095