Efecto de la restauración hidrológica sobre la productividad de raíces subterráneas en los manglares de Laguna de Términos, México

Rosela Perez-Ceballos, Karina Rivera-Rosales, Arturo Zaldivar-Jiménez, Julio Canales-Delgadillo, Roberto Brito-Pérez, Luis Amador del Angel, Martin Merino-Ibarra

Abstract


Antecedentes: Cambios en los patrones hidrológicos degradan la estructura forestal y afectan la productividad primaria. Con acciones de restauración hidrológica, se pretende restablecer condiciones biogeoquímicas para facilitar el establecimiento, sobrevivencia y crecimiento de la vegetación del manglar que permitan la recuperación de la estructura forestal y la productividad de raíces subterráneas (< 20 mm).

Pregunta: ¿Pueden los cambios ambientales inducidos por la restauración hidrológica reactivar la productividad de raíces?

Especie en estudio: Los cambios en biomasa y productividad de raíces subterráneas de Avicennia germinans fueron usadas como indicador de éxito de la restauración.

Sitio de estudio y fechas: Isla del Carmen, Laguna de Términos, Campeche, agosto de 2013 a febrero de 2015.

Métodos: Se seleccionaron tres sitios de manglar en restauración y uno natural como referencia. En ellos se evaluó la concentración de algunos nutrientes (nitratos, nitritos, amonio y fosfatos) y reguladores como la salinidad y el hidroperíodo. Se evaluó entre sitios la biomasa y productividad de raíces en núcleos de crecimiento enterrados a 30 cm de profundidad durante 18 meses.

Resultados: La productividad de raíces < 20 mm de diámetro fue menor en los sitios en restauración (17 a 233 g m2 año-1) que en el sitio de referencia (414 g m2 año-1). La productividad de raíces estuvo asociada con la estructura forestal y las condiciones hidrológicas.

Conclusiones: La proporción de raíces >2 mm de diámetro fue mayor en el sitio de referencia y decreció hacia los sitios restaurados, indicando que la estructura forestal (regeneración natural) y el tiempo (años) después de la restauración fue importante para la recuperación funcional del ecosistema de manglar.


Keywords


Rehabilitación hidrológica, biomasa subterránea, raíces finas, biogeoquímica, hidroperíodo.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17129/botsci.1989

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