Seed germination and population structure of two endangered tree species: Magnolia perezfarrerae and Magnolia sharpii

  • Suria Gisela Vásquez-Morales Department of Biology, Division of Sciences Naturals and Exacts, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Gto. http://orcid.org/0000-0002-6431-1954
  • Neptalí Ramírez-Marcial Department of Biodiversity Conservation, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), San Cristóbal de Las Casas, Chiapas
Keywords: dormancy, endangered species, endemic, ex situ propagation, pre-germination treatment.

Abstract

Background: Due to habitat fragmentation many Magnolia species are at risk of extinction in Mexico.

Question: What type of population structure is exhibited by Magnolia perezfarrerae and M. sharpii, endemic species of Chiapas, Mexico? Does the extreme reduction in the population of both Magnolia affect their reproductive capacity? What is the propagation potential in both species of Magnolia? Is it necessary to use pregerminative treatments for Magnolia species propagation?

Studied species: Magnolia perezfarrerae A. Vázquez & Gómez-Domínguez and Magnolia sharpii Miranda.

Study sites and years of study: Highlands and Central Depression of Chiapas, Mexico, from 2015 to 2017.

Methods: In this study, the density and distribution of diametric sizes of M. perezfarrerae and M. sharpii were assessed in natural populations. Their reproductive capacity and the ex-situ germination of both species was analyzed.

Results: The population density in M. perezfarrerae was 40-53 ind. ha-1, and 24-83 ind. ha-1 in M. sharpii. Size structure varied between populations of each species: one apparently without problems of regeneration, and another with discontinuous distribution in several size categories. The seeds presented physical, chemical and mechanical dormancy. The pre-germination treatments applied proved mostly effective for M. sharpii by 73 % and by 64 % for M. perezfarrerae.

Conclusions:  The current condition of Magnoliaspecies is critical and their persistence is compromised. Any viable conservation option would need to identify potential sites for the reintroduction of new populations.

 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Suria Gisela Vásquez-Morales, Department of Biology, Division of Sciences Naturals and Exacts, University of Guanajuato, Guanajuato, Gto.
I am a doctor in science in biotechnology and ecology at the Universidad Veracruzana. Bachelor in Biology from the same university. I belong to the department of biology of the University of Guanajuato. I focus on ecology research on endangered plants, seed ecology, propagation, demography, conservation, climate change and bioprospecting of species through the management of agricultural pests.
Seed germination and population structure of two endangered tree species: <em>Magnolia perezfarrerae</em> and <em>Magnolia sharpii</em>

References

Baskin CC, Baskin JM. 2001. Seeds. Ecology, Biogeography, and Evolution of Dormancy and Germination. New York: Academic press. ISBN-13: 978-0120802630

Candiani G, Galetti M, Mendez-Cardoso VJ. 2004. Seed germination and removal of Michelia chapaca L. (Magnoliaceae) in eucalipt stands: the influence of the aril. Revista Árbore 28: 327-332. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-67622004000300002

Cayuela L, Rey-Benayas JM, Echeverría C. 2006. Clearance and fragmentation of tropical montane forests in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico (1975-2000). Forest Ecology and Management 226: 208-218. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2006.01.047

Caswell H. 2001. Matrix Population Models, Construction, Analysis and Interpretation.. Sunderland Massachusetts. Sinauer Associated, Inc. Publishers. ISBN-13: 978-0878930968

Cicuzza D, Newton A, Oldfield S. 2007. The Red list of Magnoliaceae. Cambridge UK. Fauna & Flora International. ISBN: 9781 903703 23 6

Corral-Aguirre J, Sánchez-Velásquez LR. 2006. Seed ecology and germination treatments in Magnolia dealbata: an endangered species. Flora 201: 227-232. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2005.07.004

Dieringer G, Cabrera-R L, Lara M, Loya L, Reyes-Castillo P. 1999. Beetle pollination and floral thermogenicity in Magnolia tamaulipana (Magnoliaceae). International Journal of Plant Sciences 160: 64-71. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1086/314099

Fernando MTR, Gehan-Jayasuriya KMG, Walck JL, Wijetunga ASTB. 2013. Identifying dormancy class and storage behavior of champak (Magnolia champaca) seeds, an important tropical timber tree. Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka 41: 141-146. DOI: http://doi.org/10.4038/jnsfsr.v41i2.5708

He J, Chen L, Si Y, Huang B, Ban X, Wang Y. 2009. Population structure and genetic diversity distribution in wild and cultivated populations of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis subsp Biloba (Magnoliaceae). Genetica 135: 233-243. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s10709-008-9272-8

Hoshino D, Nishimura N, Yamamoto S. 2002. Dynamics of major conifer and deciduous broad-leaved tree species in an old-growth Chamaecyparis obtusa forest, central Japan. Forest Ecology and Management 159: 133-144. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00724-6

Iralu V, Upadhaya K. 2016. Dormancy, storability, and germination of seeds in Magnolia punduana (Magnoliaceae). Botany 94: 967-973. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1139/cjb-2016-0056

Jacobo-Pereira C, Romo-Campos R, Flores J. 2016. Germinación de semillas de Magnolia pugana (Magnoliaceae), especie endémica y en peligro de extinción del occidente de México. Botanical Sciences 94: 1-10. DOI: http://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.512

Jiménez-Ramírez J, Vega-Flores K, Cruz-Durán R, Vázquez-García JA. 2007. Magnolia guerrerensis (Magnoliaceae), una especie nueva del bosque mesófilo de montaña del estado de Guerrero, México. Boletín de la Sociedad Botánica de México 80: 73-76. DOI: http://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.1746

Kim S, Soltis ED, Soltis SP, Suh Y. 2004. DNA sequences from Miocene fossils: an NDHF sequence of Magnolia latahensis (Magnoliaceae) and an RBCL sequences of Persea pseudocarolinensis (Lauraceae). American Journal of Botany 91: 615-620. DOI: http://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.91.4.615

Kim S, Koh J, Yoo MJ, Kong H, Hu Y, Ma H, Soltis PS, Soltis DE. 2005. Expression of floral MADS-box genes in basal angiosperms: implications for the evolution of floral regulators. The Plant Journal 43: 724-744. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2005.02487.x

Kundu SR. 2009. A synopsis on distribution and endemism of Magnoliaceae s.l. in Indian Subcontinent. Thaiszia Journal of Botany 19: 47-60.

Martínez-Icó M, Cetzal-Ix W, Noguera-Savelli E, Hérnandez-Juárez R. 2015. Flora vascular de la comunidad de Bazom, Los Altos de Chiapas, México. Botanical Sciences 93: 53-72. DOI: http://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.136

McKenney DW, Pedlar JH, Lawrence K, Campbell K, Hutchinson MF. 2007. Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of North American trees. BioScience 57: 939-948. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1641/B571106

Miranda F. 1955. Dos nuevas especies de árboles del sur de México. Anuales Instituto de Biología de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 26: 79-83.

Newton AC, Gow J, Robertson A, Williams-Linera G, Ramírez-Marcial N, González-Espinosa M, Allnutt TR, Ennos R. 2008. Genetic variation in two rare endemic Mexican trees, Magnolia sharpii and Magnolia schiedeana. Silvae Genetica 57: 348-356. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1515/sg-2008-0051

Ochoa-Gaona S, González-Espinosa M. 2000. Land use and deforestation in the highlands of Chiapas, Mexico. Applied Geography 20: 17-42. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0143-6228(99)00017-X

R Core Team 2013. R: A Language and Enviroment for Statistical Computing. Version 3.3.1. R foundation for statistical computing. Viena, Austria. <https://www.r-project.org/>

Ramírez-Bamonde ES, Sánchez-Velásquez LR, Andrade-Torres A. 2005. Seedling survival and growth of three species of mountain cloud forest in Mexico, under different canopy treatments. New Forests 30: 95-101. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s11056-004-5397-5

Ramírez-Marcial N, González-Espinosa M, Williams-Linera G. 2001. Anthropogenic disturbance and tree diversity in montane rain forest in Chiapas, Mexico. Forest Ecology and Management 154: 311-326. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1127(00)00639-3

Rivers M, Beech E, Murphy L, Oldfield S. 2016. The Red List of Magnoliaceae: Revised and Extended. Cambridge U.K. Fauna & Flora International. ISBN-13: 978-1-905164-64-6

Saldaña-Acosta A, Zuloaga-Aguilar MS, Jardel-Peláez E. 2001. Germinación de Acer skutchii Rehder y Magnolia iltisiana Vázquez en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco, México. Foresta Veracruzana 3: 1-8.

Sánchez-Velásquez LR, Pineda-López MR. 2010. Comparative demographic analysis in contrasting environments of Magnolia dealbata: an endangered species from Mexico. Population Ecology 52: 203-210. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1007/s10144-009-0161-5

Sánchez-Velásquez LR, Pineda-López MR, Vásquez-Morales SG, Avendaño-Yáñez ML. 2016. Ecology and conservation of endangered species: The case of magnolias. In: Quinn M. ed. Endangered Species. USA: Nova Sciences Publishers, Inc., 63-84. ISBN: 978-1-63484-404-8.

SEMARNAT [Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales]. 2010. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2010, Protección ambiental – Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres – Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio – Lista de especies en riesgo. Diario Oficial de la Federación. 2da Sección, 30 de diciembre de 2010.

Toledo-Aceves T. 2017. Germination rate of endangered cloud forest trees in Mexico: potential for ex situ propagation. Journal of Forest Research 22: 61-64. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1080/13416979.2016.1273083

Vásquez-Morales SG, Sánchez-Velásquez LR. 2011. Seed ecology and pre-germinative treatments in Magnolia schiedeana Schlecht, an endangered species from México. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment 9: 604-608.

Vásquez-Morales SG, Téllez-Valdés O, Pineda-López MR, Sánchez-Velásquez LR, Flores-Estévez N, Viveros-Viveros H. 2014. Effect of climate change on the distribution of Magnolia schiedeana: a threatened species. Botanical Sciences 92: 575-585. DOI: http://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.116

Vásquez-Morales SG, Sánchez-Velásquez LR, Pineda-López MR, Díaz-Fleischer F, Flores-Estévez N, Viveros-Viveros H. 2017. Moderate anthropogenic disturbance does not effect the demography of Magnolia schiedeana, an endangered species from Mexico. Flora 234: 77-83. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2017.07.005

Vázquez-García JA, Gómez-Domínguez H, López-Cruz A, Espinosa-Jiménez JA, Sahagún-Godínez E, Muñiz-Castro MA. 2013. Magnolia perezfarrerae, a new species and a key to Mexican species of Magnolia (Section Talauma, subsection Talauma, Magnoliaceae). Botanical Sciences 91: 417-425. DOI: http://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.421

Vázquez-García JA, Pérez-Farrera MA, Gómez-Dominguez H, Muñiz-Castro MA, Sahagun-Godínez. 2017. Magnolia montebelloensis, a new species in section Magnolia from Lagunas de Montebello National Park, Chiapas, México, with a key to Magnoliaceae of Chiapas. Phytotaxa 328: 101-114. DOI: http://doi.org/10.11646/phytotaxa.328.2.1

Wang R, Xu S, Liu X, Zhang Y, Wang J, Zhang Z. 2014. Thermogenesis, flowering and the association with variation in floral odour attractants in Magnolia sprengeri (Magnoliaceae). PLoS ONE 9:e99356. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0099356

Published
2019-03-13
How to Cite
Vásquez-Morales, S. G., & Ramírez-Marcial, N. (2019). Seed germination and population structure of two endangered tree species: <em>Magnolia perezfarrerae</em> and <em>Magnolia sharpii</em&gt;. Botanical Sciences, 97(1), 2-12. https://doi.org/10.17129/botsci.1977