Characterization of the secondary metabolites in the seeds of nine native bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris and P. coccineus) from Querétaro, Mexico

Marcela Quiróz-Sodi, Sandra Mendoza-Díaz, Luis Hernández-Sandoval, Israel Carrillo-Ángeles


Background: Beans (Phaseolus spp.) are one of the most important legumes due to their high nutritional value. The type and amount of beans’ secondary metabolites varies according to their domestication status, species, and the site where they are grown. In the sate of Querétaro, the most commonly cultivated species are P. vulgaris L. and P. coccineus L., both of which can also be found in wild and disturbed areas.

Hypothesis: The aim of this project was to characterize the secondary metabolites in the seeds of the aforementioned species of Phaseolus with different domestication stages and from different geographical areas. The hypothesis is that wild beans collected in Mexican Plateau will have higher concentrations of secondary metabolites.

Study site and period of research: The seeds of six samples of domesticated P. vulgaris and three of wild and weedy P. coccineus populations were collected from the Mexican Plateau and the Sierra Madre Oriental in Querétaro, between 2013 and 2016.

Methods: It was an experiment with one factor and two levels (bean species) sampled randomized. The experimental unit was each sample, which was studied to obtain 17 chemical parameters, mainly secondary metabolites. From each sample 5 g were selected, minced and parameters were measured twice employing spectrophotometry and high performance liquid chromatography. Data was analyzed using a bootstrap method, discriminant analysis and by establishing simple correlations.

Results: The content of secondary metabolites from cultivated P. vulgaris seeds was higher, probably due to its favorable growth environmental and domestication status. Also, beans from the Mexican Plateau had a higher content of secondary metabolites than those from the Sierra Gorda. The analysis of these metabolites allowed for the identification of bean samples with the highest gallic, ellagic, ferulic and p-coumaric acids and vainillin content.

Conclusion: The studied samples had different metabolite content according to their species, domestication status and site of growth.


Beans; Phaseolus; phenols; proteins; Querétaro

Full Text:



Bautista-Lozada A, Parra RF, Espinosa-García FJ. 2012. Efectos de la domesticación de plantas en la diversidad fitoquímica. In: Rojas JC, Malo EA, eds. Temas Selectos de Ecología Química de los Insectos. México: Colegio de la Frontera Sur. 253-264. ISBN: 6077637718; 9786077637714.

Beninger C, Hosfield G. 2003. Antioxidant activity of extracts, condensed tannin fractions and pure flavonoids from Phaseolus vulgaris L. seed coat color genotypes. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51: 7879-7883. DOI: 10.1021/jf0304324

Benrey B, Callejas A, Ríos L, Oyama K, Denno RF. 1998. The effects of domestication of Brassica and Phaseolus on the interaction between phytophagous insects and parasitoids. Biological Control 11: 130-140.

Bradford M. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantization of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein dye-binding. Analytical Biochemistry 72: 248-254. DOI: 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

Campos JE, Martínez-Gallardo N, Mendiola-Olaya E, Blanco-Labra A. 1997. Purification and partial characterization of a protein inhibitor from tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) seeds. Journal of Food Chemistry 21: 203-218. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-4514.1997.tb00215.x

Cardador-Martínez A, Castaño-Tostado E, Loarca-Piña G. 2002. Antimutagenic activity of natural phenolic compounds present in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) against aflatoxinB1. Food Additives and Contaminants 19: 62-69. DOI: 10.1080/02652030110062110

Cárdenas-Ramos F. 1997. Catalogo de uso, conservación y disponibilidad de Phaseolus en México. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería y Desarrollo rural. Instituto Nacional de Investigación Forestal, Agrícola y Ganadera (INIFAP).

Chacón MI, Pickersgill SB, Debouck DG. 2005. Domestication patterns in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and the origin of the Mesoamerican and Andean cultivated races. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 110: 432-444. DOI: 10.1007/s00122-004-1842-2.

CONABIO [Comisión Nacional del Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad]. 2017. <> (accessed November, 2017).

Dai J, Mumper JR. 2010. Plant Phenolics: extraction, analysis and their antioxidant and anticancer properties. Molecules 15: 7313-7352. DOI: 10.3390/molecules15107313.

Dewanto V, Wu X, Adom KK, Lui RH. 2002. Thermal processing enhances the nutritional value of tomatoes by increasing total antioxidant activity. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 50: 3010-3014. DOI: 10.1021/jf0115589.

Díaz-Batalla L, Widhlom JM, Fahey JG, Castaño-Tostado E, Paredes-López O. 2006. Chemical components with health implications in wild and cultivated mexican common bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 54: 2045-2052. DOI: 10.1021/jf051706l.

Espinosa-Alonso G, Lygin A, Widholm J, Valverde M, Paredes-López O. 2006. Polyphenols in wild and weedy Mexican common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54: 4436-4444. DOI: 10.1021/jf060185e.

Franco OL, Rigden DJ, Melo FR, Grossi-de-Sá M. 2002. Plant α-amylase inhibitors and their interaction with insect α-amylases. European Journal of Biochemistry 269: 397-412. DOI: 10.1046/j.0014-2956.2001.02656.x.

Freytag G, Debouck DG. 2002. Taxonomy, distribution and ecology of the genus Phaseolus (Leguminosae-Papilionidae) in North America, Mexico and Central America. Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 50-99.

Gepts P. 2014. Domestication of Plants. In: Van Halfen NK. Ed. Encyclopedia of Agriculture and Food Systems. 474-486. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52512-3.00231-X

Giusti MM, Wrolstad RE. 2001. Characterization and measurement of anthocyanins by UV-visible spectroscopy. Current protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry. DOI: 10.1002/0471142913.faf0102s00.

Henson RN. 2015. Analysis of variance (ANOVA). In: Toga AW. Ed. Brain Mapping: an Encyclopedic Reference. Elsevier Academic Press. 477-481. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-397025-1.00319-5. ISBN-13: 978-0123970251

QMEX (Herbarium “Jerzy Rzedowski”). 2016. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales. Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro (UAQ).

Herrera-Flores T, Cárdenas-Soriano E, Ortíz-Cereceres J, Acosta-Gallegos J, Mendoza-Castillo MC. 2005. Anatomy of the pod of three species of the genus Phaseolus. Agrociencia 39: 595-602.

Kachigan SK. 1986. Statistical analysis: an interdisciplinary introduction to univariate and multivariate methods. New York: Radius Press. ISBN-13: 978-0942154993

Lépiz-Idelfonso R, López-Alcocer JJ, Sánchez-González J, Santacruz-Ruvalcaba F, Nuño-Romero R, Rodríguez-Guzmán E. 2010. Características morfológicas de formas cultivadas, silvestres e intermedias de frijol común de hábito trepador. Revista Fitotecnia Mexicana 33: 21-28.

Luthria DL, Pastor-Corrales M. 2006. Phenolic acids content of fifteen dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varieties. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19: 205-211. DOI: 10.1016/j.jfca.2005.09.003.

Mbogo KP, Davis J, Myers JR. 2009. Transfer of the arcelin-phytohaemagglutinin-α amylase inhibitor seed protein locus from tepary bean (P. acutifolius A. Gray) to common bean (P. vulgaris L.). Biotechnology 8: 285-295. DOI: 10.3923/biotech.2009.285.295.

Mejía GE, Guzmán-Maldonado H, Acosta-Gallegos J, Reynoso-Camacho R, Ramírez-Rodríguez E, Pons-Hernández J, González-Chavira M, Castellanos ZJ, Kelly DJ. 2003. Effect of cultivar and growing location of the trypsin inhibitors, tannins and lectins in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in semiarid highlands of México. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 51: 5962-5966. DOI: 10.1021/jf030046m.

Nagl W, Ignacimuthu S, Becker J. 1997. Genetic Engineering and Regeneration of Phaseolus and Vigna. State of the Art and New Attempts. Journal Plant Physiology 150: 625-644. DOI: 10.1016/S0176-1617(97)80277-5.

Peña-Valdivia CB, Aguirre-R JR, Arroyo-Peña VB. 2012. El frijol silvestre: Síndorme de domesticación. Texcoco: Biblioteca Básica de Agricultura/Colegio de Postgraduados.

Puertas-Mejía MA, Ríos-Yepes Y, Alberto-Rojano B. 2013. Determinación de antocianinas mediante extracción asistida por radiación de microondas en frijol (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) de alto consumo en Antioquia--Colombia. Revista Cubana de Plantas Medicinales 18: 288-297.

Quinn GP, Keough MJ. 2003. Experimental Design and Data Analysis for Biologists. Cambridge University Press. ISBN: 978-0-521-00976-8

Ramírez-Jiménez AK, Reynoso-Camacho R, Mendoza-Díaz S, Loarca-Piña G. 2014. Functional and technological potential of dehydrated Phaseolus vulgaris L. flours. Food Chemistry 161: 254-260. DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.04.008

REMIB [Red Mundial de Información sobre la Biodiversidad], 2017. (accessed November 2017).

Reyes-Rivas E, Padilla-Bernal LE, Pérez Veyna O, López-Jáquez P. 2008. Historia, naturaleza y cualidades aliemntarias del frijol. Investigación Científica 4: 1-21.

Soto-Figueroa M. 1994. Influencia del cotyledon en la determinación de taninos y su relación con el color y el contenido de la testa en frijol común. BSc. Thesis. Universidad Autónoma de Queretaro.

Somogyi M. 1938. Micromethods for the estimation of diastase. Jorunal of Biological Chemistry. 125: 399-414.

Two Pilots Inc. 2003. Data Pilot v. 1.03 (developed by Oleg Adibekov). Two Pilots Inc. (accessed November, 2016)

Vargas-Vázquez P, Muruaga-Martínez JS, Martínez-Villareal SE, Ruiz-Salazar R, Hernández-Delgado S, Mayek-Pérez N. 2011. Morphologic diversity of ayocote beans from Huasteco Karst of México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 82: 767-775. DOI: 10.7550/rmb.27823



  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 2007-4476
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.