El conocimiento florístico actual del Noroeste de México: desarrollo, recuento y análisis del endemismo

José Luis León de la Luz, Jon Paul Rebman, Thomas R. Van Devender, José Jesús Sánchez-Escalante, José Delgadillo-Rodríguez, Alfonso Medel-Narváez

Abstract


Background: Floristic knowledge of Northwestern (NW) Mexico was mainly carried out by American botanists until the first half of XX century.

Question: Do the ancient and recent botanical explorations carried out in the study area, are already enough to document in a conclusive way both the floristic and structural composition?

Methods: The authors are botanists and managers of the herbaria included in the floristic compilation (BCMEX, HCIB, SD, and USON), each herbarium has been devoted to document the flora of the states of NW Mexico in the last three decades. The floristic information was obtained mainly of the herbaria databases (around 110,000 entries), historic bibliographic information and recent collects from the same authors. The databases consulted are composed by 27,117 collect sites.

Results: The final database obtained consists of 5,865 taxa at the species level and intraspecific categories. By state, Sonora is the most biodiverse with 3,762 taxa, Baja California has 2,583 and Baja California Sur has 2,070. The Mexican NW is relatively poor in total number of species, but the number of endemic taxa is high. Within this region there are 941 endemic species, where 294, 391, and 79 correspond to the states of Baja California, Baja California Sur, and Sonora, respectively; in addition, there are 177 endemic species shared among these three states. The NW region also has 18 endemic genera, included in 10 families.

Conclusions: As result of this review, there is excellent floristic knowledge background for NW Mexico, but there are still geographic areas still inaccessible, which includes all kind of topography, that explored could increase the total flora and endemism rate. Presently, the climate change put into risk the species survival, and hence it is a priority that conservation programs be established especially in terms of endemic species, since many of them have a restricted geographical distribution.

Keywords


Baja California Peninsula; Endemic plants; Northwestern; Sonora

Full Text:

PDF (Español)

References


Baldwin BG, Goldman D, Keil DJ, Patterson R, Rosatti TJ, Wilken D. (eds.). 2012. The Jepson Manual, Vascular Plants of California, Thoroughly Revised and Expanded. The University of California Press. ISBN: 9780520253124

Brandegee TS 1889. Plants from Baja California. Proceedings of the California Academy of Science Ser. 2, Vol II: 117-216.

Brown DE. ed. 1994. Biotic Communities: Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. University of Utah Press.ISBN: 9780874804591.

CONABIO [Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad]. 2009. Manglares de México: Extensión y Distribución. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad. ISBN: 978-607-7607-10-6

CONANP [Comisión Nacional de las Áreas Naturales Protegidas de México]. 2017. Áreas Naturales Protegidas Decretadas. (accessed: September 20, 2017).

Delgadillo J. 1998. Florística y ecología del norte de Baja California. Universidad Autónoma de Baja California. ISBN: 963-7326-77-8

Espejel I, Jiménez-Orocio O, Castillo-Campos G, Garcillán PP, Álvarez L, Castillo-Argüero S, Durán R, Ferrer M, Infante-Mata D, Iriarte S, León de la Luz JL, López-Rosas H, Medel-Narváez A, Monroy R, Moreno-Casasola P, Rebman JP, Rodríguez-Revelo N, Sánchez-Escalante J, Vanderplank S. 2017. Flora en playas y dunas costeras de México. Acta Botanica Mexicana 121: 39-81. DOI: 10.21829/abm121.2017.1290

Ferrari L, Valencia-Moreno M, Bryan S. 2005. Magmatismo y tectónica en la Sierra Madre Occidental y su relación con la evolución de la margen occidental de Norteamérica. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana. LVII: 303-378. (accessed August 27, 2016)

García E. 1973. Modificaciones al sistema de clasificación climática de Koppen (para adaptarlo a las condiciones de la República Mexicana). Instituto de Geografía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Garcillán PP, León de la Luz JL, Rebman JP, Delgadillo J. 2013. Plantas no nativas de la península de Baja California, México. Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475. DOI: 10.17129/botsci.423

Gentry H S. 1942. Río Mayo Plants. Carnegie Institution of Washington. ISBN: 13-978-0816517268

Gentry HS. 1972. The Agave family in Sonora. US Dept. of Agricultural Research Service.

Gentry HS. 1978. The agaves of Baja California. California Academy of Sciences. ISSN: 0068-5461.

Gould FW, Moran RV. 1981. The Grasses of Baja California, Mexico. San Diego Society of Natural History, 12: 1-140

INEGI [Instituto Nacional de Geografía Estadística e Informática]. 1997. Mapa digital de uso del suelo y vegetación de Baja California y Baja California Sur (Serie 2), escala 1:250,000.

INEGI. 2017. Encuesta Intercensal 2015. (accessed: January 3, 2017).

Johnson AF. 1977. A survey of the strand and dune vegetation along the Pacific and southern gulf coasts of Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Biogeography 7: 83-99. DOI: 10.2307/3038131

Johnson AF. 1982. Dune vegetation along the eastern shore of the Gulf of California. Journal of Biogeography 9: 317-330. DOI: 10.2307/2844718

León de la Luz JL, Pérez-Navarro JJ, Breceda A. 2000. A transitional xerophitic tropical plant community of the Cape Region, Baja California. Journal of Vegetation Science 11: 555-564.

León de la Luz JL, Domínguez-Cadena R, Medel-Narvaez A. 2012. Florística de la Selva Baja Caducifolia de la Península de Baja California, México. Botanical Sciences 90: 143-162. DOI: 10.17129/botsci.480.

McLaughlin SP. 1995. An overview of the flora of the Sky Islands, southeastern Arizona: Diversity, affinities, and insularity.. In: DeBano LF, Ffolliott PF, Ortega-Rubio A, Gottfried GJ, Hamre RH, Edminister CB. (coords.) Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-GTR-264. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 60-70. DOI: 10.2737/RM-GTR-264

Molina-Freaner F, Castillo-Gámez R, Tinoco-Ojanguren C, Castellanos AE. 2004. Vine species diversity across environmental gradients in northwestern Mexico. Biodiversity and Conservation 13: 1853-1874. DOI: 10.1023/B:BIOC.0000035871.80725.1a

Rebman JP, Gibson J, Rich K. 2016. Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Baja California, Mexico. Proceedings of the San Diego Natural History Museum. 45: 1-352

Riemann H, Ezcurra E. 2007. Endemic regions of the vascular flora of the peninsula of Baja California, Mexico. Journal of Vegetation Science 18: 327-336. DOI: 10.1658/1100-9233(2007)18[327:EROTVF]2.0.CO;2

Rzedowski J. 1979. Los bosques secos y semi-húmedos de México con afinidades neotropicales. In: Halffter G, Ravinovich J. (comps.) Tópicos de Ecología Contemporánea. Fondo de Cultura Económica37-46. ISBN: 9681602617, 9789681602611.

Rzedowski J. 1993. Diversity and origins of the phanerogamic flora of Mexico. In: Ramamoorthy TP, Bye R, Lot A, Fa J. (eds.). Biological diversity of Mexico: origins and distribution. Oxford University Press. NY. 129-148. ISBN-10: 019506674X: ISBN-13: 978-0195066746

Riddle BR, Hafner DJ, Alexander LF, Jaeger JR. 2000. Cryptic vicariance in the historical assembly of a Baja California peninsular desert biota. Proccedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 97: 14438–14443. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.250413397

Steinmann, VW. 2002. Diversidad y endemismo de la Familia Euphorbiaceae en México. Acta Botánica Mexicana 61: 61-93. DOI: 10.21829/abm61.2002.909

Shreve F, Wiggins IL. 1964. Vegetation and Flora of the Sonoran Desert. Stanford University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0804701631

Sosa V, De Nova JA. 2012. Endemic angiosperm linages in Mexico: hotspots for Conservation. Acta Botanica Mexicana 100: 293-315.

Taylor NP. 1985. The genus Echinocereus. The Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew and Timber Press. ISBN-13: 9780881920529

Tropicos.org. 2017. Missouri Botanical Garden. (accessed January5, 2017).

Van Devender TR. 2002. Enviromental history of the Sonoran Desert. In: Fleming TH, Valiente-Banuet A. eds. Columnar cacti and their mutualists: Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation. Arizona University Press. 3-24. ISBN-13: 978-0816522040.

Van Devender TR, Felger RS, Molina-Freaner F, Fishbein M, Molina-Freaner F, Sánchez-Escalante JJ, Reina-Guerrero AL. 2010. Biodiversidad de las Plantas Vasculares. In: Molina-Freaner F, Van Devender TR eds. Diversidad Biológica de Sonora. UNAM-CONABIO. ISBN 978-607-02-0427-2.

Van Devender TR, Avila-Villegas S, Emerson M, Turner D, Flesch AD, Deyo DS. 2013. Biodiversity in the Madrean Archipelago of Sonora, Mexico. In: Gottfried GJ, Ffolliott PF, Gebow BS, Eskew LG, Collins LC. comps. Merging science and management in a rapidly changing world: Biodiversity and management of the Madrean Archipelago III, and 7th Conference on Research and Resource Management in the Southwestern Deserts; 2012 May 1-5; Tucson, AZ. Proceedings. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station.

Van Devender TR, Reina-Guerrero AL, Flesch AD, Jacobs S, Wilson MF. 2014. Additions to the flora of Sonora, Mexico. Phytoneuron 76: 1–8

Van Devender TR, Reina-Guerrero AL, Delgado-Zamora D, Carnahan SD, Anderson JL, Hansen K, Sánchez-Escalante JJ, Ferguson GM. 2015. Additions to the flora of Sonora, Mexico II. Phytoneuron 8: 1–6.

Villaseñor JL, Espinoza-García FJ. 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions 10: 113–123 DOI: 10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Villaseñor JL, Ortiz E. 2014. Biodiversidad de las plantas con flores (División Magnoliophyta) en México. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 85: 134-142. DOI: 10.7550/rmb.31987

Villaseñor JL. 2016. Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. DOI: 10.22201/ib.20078706e.2016.3.1638

Wiggins IL. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford University Press. ISBN-13: 978-0804710169




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17129/botsci.1885

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 2007-4476
Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.