Evolution, growth and phenology of Phalaris minor biotypes resistant to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides in Mexico

Jesús Rubén Torres-García, Obdulia Segura-León, Ebandro Uscanga-Mortera, Carlos Trejo, Víctor Conde-Martínez, Josué Kohashi-Shibata, David Martínez-Moreno


Background: Herbicide application to control weeds can promote a rapid selection of resistant phenotypes in small geographic areas. Also, in areas with a spatial heterogeneous management, resistance may evolve independently, promoting local adaptation in weeds. In the Mexican region known as “El Bajio,” 100,000 ha are cultivated with wheat, and the weed  Phalaris minor, resistant to ACCase-inhibiting herbicides is present common.

Question: We aim to identify the population structure of two genes in four different P. minor biotypes from “El Bajio” and to determine their association with phenology and plant growth differences (biomass and seed yield) that may contribute to survival in the agricultural environment.

Studied species: Phalaris minor Retz.

Study site and years of study:

Methods: The diversity of the psbA gene and the sequence of two ACCase gene fragments as well as phenology, growth and biomass allocation were evaluated.

Results: Results indicated different polymorphism levels for the two genes. There were no differences in the psbA gene between biotypes, although the ACCase gene exhibited high polymorphism level. In addition, each biotype showed differences in phenology, biomass accumulation and fecundity.

Conclusions: The ACCase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in “El Bajio” region might be a resistance hotspot leading to the local adaptation of weeds.


Evolution; herbicide resistance; local adaptation

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